The term stock market refers to a number of exchanges where shares of public companies are bought and sold. This financial activity is carried out through official exchanges and over-the-counter (OTC) markets, which operate in accordance with a certain set of rules.

The terms “stock market” and “stock market” are often used synonymously. Stock traders buy or sell stocks on one or more exchanges that are part of the general stock market.

Important points
.Stock markets are places where buyers and sellers meet to trade shares of public companies.
.Stock markets are components of a free market economy because they provide investors with democratic access to trading and Exchange capital.
.Stock markets create efficient price detection and efficient trading.
.The U.S. stock market is regulated by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and local regulators.

Understanding the Stock Market
The stock market allows buyers and sellers of securities to meet, communicate and make transactions. Markets are used to determine the prices of a company’s shares and serve as a barometer for the entire economy. While market participants compete on the open market, buyers and sellers are confident in a fair price, high liquidity and transparency.

The London Stock Exchange was the first stock exchange to open in a cafe where, in 1773, traders met to exchange shares. 3 The first stock exchange of the United States opened in Philadelphia in 1790. 4 The Buttonwood Agreement, so named because it was signed under the buttonwood tree. Well, in 1792, Wall Street began in New York. The agreement was signed by 24 traders and became the first institution in the United States to start trading securities. In 1817, the traders renamed their business the New York Securities and Exchange Board. 5

The stock market is a regulated and regulated environment. The main regulatory bodies in the United States are the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and the Financial Sector Regulatory Authority (FINRA).21

Early stock markets issued and sold paper certificates for physical shares. Today, stock markets operate electronically.

How the Stock Market Works
Stock markets provide a safe and regulated environment in which market participants can confidently trade stocks and other suitable financial instruments with zero or low operational risk. Stock markets that operate in accordance with certain rules established by the regulatory authority operate both primary and secondary markets.6

As a primary market, the stock market allows companies to issue and sell their shares to the public for the first time as part of the initial public offering (IPO) process. This initiative helps companies to attract the necessary capital from investors.

The company is divided into several shares and sells some of these shares to the public at a price per share.6 To facilitate this process, the company needs a market in which these shares can be sold, and this is done through the stock market. A listed company may offer new additional shares at a later stage with the help of other offers, for example, by issuing rights or a subsequent offer. They can buy back or withdraw their shares from the listing.

Investors buy shares of a company in the hope that the stock price will rise or that they will receive dividend payments or both. The exchange acts as an intermediary in this process of raising capital and receives remuneration from the company and its financial partners for their services.6 using the stock exchange, investors can also buy and sell their securities on the so-called secondary market.

The stock market or stock exchange supports various market and industry indicators, such as the S&P (Standard and Poor’s) 500 index and the Nasdaq 100 index, which serve as an indicator for tracking general market movements.

After the IPO, the stock exchange serves as a trading platform for buying and selling outstanding shares. This creates a secondary market. The exchange charges a commission for each transaction that occurs on its platform during the activity on the secondary market.6.

What are the functions of the stock market?
The stock market ensures price transparency, liquidity, price disclosure and fair use in trading activities.

The stock market ensures that all interested market participants have access to data for all purchase and sale orders, which contributes to fair and transparent pricing of securities. The market ensures the effective matching of the relevant purchase and sale orders.7

The stock market should support price setting when the price of a stock is determined collectively by all its buyers and sellers. Those who have the right and desire to trade have instant access to orders, and the market guarantees that orders are executed at fair prices.

Stock market traders include market makers, investors, traders, speculators and hedgers. An investor can buy a stock and hold it for a long time, while a trader can enter and exit a position in seconds. A market maker provides the necessary liquidity in the market, while a hedging agent can trade derivatives.

How stock markets are regulated
Many countries have stock markets, and each of them is regulated by a local financial regulator, authority or monetary institution. The Securities and Exchange Commission is the regulatory body that oversees the U.S. stock market.

Publicly traded companies are regulated and their transactions are monitored by the SEC. In addition, exchanges set certain requirements, such as timely submission of quarterly financial reports and timely reporting on relevant corporate affairs, to ensure that all market participants are also informed.

Failure to comply with the rules may lead to the suspension of negotiations and other disciplinary measures.

How important is the stock market?
The stock market is an integral part of the free market economy. It allows companies to raise funds by offering stocks and corporate bonds, and allows investors to participate in the financial achievements of companies, profit from capital gains and receive income from dividends. The stock market serves as a platform through which individual savings and investments are effectively channeled into productive investment opportunities and contribute to capital accumulation and economic development of the country.

What is an alternative trading system?
Alternative trading systems are places where large purchase and sale transactions are coordinated and not regulated like stock exchanges. Dark pools and many cryptocurrency exchanges are private exchanges or forums for trading securities and currencies and operate in private groups.

Who helps investors trade on the stock exchange?
Stockbrokers act as intermediaries between exchanges and investors, buying and selling stocks, and portfolio managers are professionals who invest portfolios or collections of securities for clients. Investment bankers represent companies with various ownership rights, such as private companies seeking to go public through IPOs, or companies involved in ongoing mergers and acquisitions.


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